Adjuvant

Adjuvant treatment in melanoma refers to additional therapy given after the primary treatment (usually surgery) to help reduce the risk of recurrence. In melanoma, adjuvant treatments are used to target any remaining cancer cells that might not have been removed during surgery and reduce the likelihood of the cancer coming back. These treatments are often recommended for patients who have a high risk of recurrence based on certain factors such as tumor stage, depth, ulceration, and lymph node involvement.

The most common adjuvant treatments for melanoma include:

  1. Interferon: This is a type of immunotherapy that helps boost the body’s immune response against cancer cells.
  2. Pembrolizumab (Keytruda) and Nivolumab (Opdivo): These are checkpoint inhibitors that also enhance the immune system’s ability to target cancer cells.
  3. Targeted Therapies: For melanomas with specific mutations, targeted therapies such as BRAF and MEK inhibitors might be used to block the activity of mutated proteins driving cancer growth.

The effectiveness of adjuvant treatments is typically assessed through clinical trials and studies that analyze survival rates and recurrence rates. Here are some statistics related to melanoma and its adjuvant treatment:

  1. Survival Rates: The 5-year survival rate for melanoma depends on the stage at diagnosis. According to the American Cancer Society, the 5-year survival rates for melanoma are approximately:
    • Stage 0 (in situ): Almost 100% survival
    • Stage I: Around 98-99% survival
    • Stage II: Approximately 85-90% survival
    • Stage III: About 40-78% survival
    • Stage IV (metastatic): Around 25% survival
  2. Adjuvant Treatment Impact: Adjuvant therapies have shown varying degrees of effectiveness in reducing the risk of recurrence and improving overall survival:
    • Interferon: Studies have shown a modest improvement in recurrence-free survival with interferon therapy, but it often comes with significant side effects.
    • Checkpoint Inhibitors (Pembrolizumab and Nivolumab): These immunotherapies have demonstrated significant improvements (approximately 50% reduction) in recurrence-free survival in high-risk melanoma patients.
    • Targeted Therapies: Targeted therapies have shown approximately a 50% recurrence-free survival, in melanomas with specific mutations like BRAF V600E/K.

It’s important to note that statistics can vary based on individual patient characteristics, the specific treatment used, and the latest research findings. Adjuvant treatment decisions should be made in consultation with a medical oncologist or melanoma specialist, considering the patient’s overall health, preferences, and the latest available clinical data.

Adjuvant Immunotherapy survival curves for Stage 3 disease